Spirituality can also have pathological aspects to it. Vaughan (1991) reports that "the shadow side to a healthy search for wholeness can be called addiction to spirituality" (p. 105). He indicates that this can be found among people who use spirituality as a solution to problems they are unwilling to face. Van-Kaam (1987) presents a viewpoint of addiction as a quasi religious or falsified religious presence. He reports that "an understanding of the relationship between religious presence and addiction allows potential dangers of receptivity to be identified in order to realize the real value of true religious presence and the shame of its counterfeit, addiction" (p. 243). McKenzie (1991) discusses addiction as an unauthentic form of spiritual existence. He says that, "addiction is born of the human desire for transcendence which is often perverted or misplaced by societies that encourage their members to seek ultimate meaning in dimensions that have no regard for the transcendent" (p. 325). Heise (1991, p. 11) explores the fundamentalist Christian's focus on perfectionism, and it's possible contribution to an increase in dysfunctional individuals, family systems, and addictions.